Collaboration CRIBL – UMR LIENSs La Rochelle | Effect of fucoidan on lymphoma: an approach to follow

Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) infects 95% of the world’s population and persists latently in the body. It immortalizes B-cells and is associated with lymphomas. LCLs (lymphoblastoid cell lines, EBV latency III B-cells) inhibit anti-tumoral T-cell response following PD-L1 overexpression (programmed death-ligand 1 immune checkpoint). Many cancer cells, including some DLBCLs (diffuse large B-cell lymphomas), also overexpress PD-L1.

Immunotherapies are based on inhibition of PD-L1/PD-1 interactions but present some dose-dependent toxicities.
We aim to find new strategies to improve their efficiency by decreasing PD-L1 expression.

Fucoidan, a polysaccharide extracted from brown seaweed, exhibits immunomodulatory and anti-tumor activities depending on its polymerization degree, but data are scarce on lymphoma cells or immune checkpoints.

LCLs and DLBCLs cells were treated with native fucoidan (Fucus vesiculosus) or original very-low-molecular-weight fucoidan formulas (vLMW-F).

We observed cell proliferation decrease and apoptosis induction increase with vLMW-F and no toxicity on normal B- and T-cells.
We highlighted a decrease in transcriptional and PD-L1 surface expression, even more efficient for vLMW than native fucoidan. This can be explained by actin network alteration, suggesting lower fusion of secretory vesicles carrying PD-L1 with the plasma membrane.

We propose vLMW-F as potential adjuvants to immunotherapy due to their anti-proliferative and proapoptotic effects and ability to decrease PD-L1 membrane expression.


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